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Hard Disk Fault Classification

This article help to detect common hard disk drive faults caused by: HDD power supply, interface, cache, BIOS, Motor combo IC, heads, pro-signal processor, digital signal processor, platters, spindle motor, head–stacks and voice coil motor...

HDD's power supply: HDD's power from the host computer. The voltages are: red: +5v; black: ground wire; yellow: +12V. If the power sully has problems, the HDD will not work. The faulty symptoms are: no power, hard disk can's spin, head-stack can't seek, etc. The power supply damaged parts always be: socket terminals, filter capacitors, diodes, transistors, FETs, inductors, insurance resistance, etc.


HDD Power Supply

Interface: interface transfer data between HDD and computer. The interface damage will cause the below problems: HDD can't be recognized. Error code, Parameters mistaken, etc. The interface damaged parts always be: interface chip or the matching crystal damaged; the pins broken, rosin joint or dirty;


HDD Interface

Cache: be used to speed up the hard disk data transfer speed. The symptoms of problems are: HDD can't be recognized; error code, halted when enter the operation system, etc.

BIOS: be used to store HDD's Hard disk capacity, interface information, etc. HDD's all workflow related with BIOS. The moment of power one/power down will caused the BIOS progress lose or error. BIOS corrupt will cause the HDD can't be recognized, be recognized incorrectly, etc.

Motor combo IC: Be used to drive HDD spindle motor or voice coil motor. Current HDD's speed is too fast to cause this IC hot and damaged. According to incomplete statistics, 70% HDD fault were caused by this motor combo IC damage.


HDD PCB Compontents

Heads– stack chip: be installed on the heads – stack. It is used to enlarge the heads information, heads logical distribution, deal with the information from voice coil motor, etc. This part fault will cause head-stack can't seek, data can't be wrote, HDD can't be recognized, clicking noise, etc.

Pro-signal processor: be used to process and sort the data from heads- stack chip. If the part has problem, the HDD can't be recognized.

Digital signal processor: be used to process the digital data from pro-signal processor. Decode the data or receive the data from computer, then encode the data.

Platters: be used to store the HDD data. Slight scratch can be repair by some data recovery software. Serious scratch can't repair.

Spindle motor: be used to drive the platter running in high-speed. Current HDD almost use the Fluid Dynamic Bearing motor with extremely high accuracy. Violent collision will largen the gap. Read data will become difficult, has clicking noise, can't find the HDD. This fault just can be resolved by professional tools.

Head – stacks: be used to read/write the HDD data. Violent collision will damage it. Then cause the HDD can't be recognized. When the HDD is damaged by collision, most cases, the heads-stack would be corrupt.

Voice coil motor: be used to locate the heads on the tracks. The motor is less damage.


HDD Disk Compontents


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